How Tips via Text Message May Help Parents and Preschoolers Learn

Tending toddlers can require endless reserves of energy. Just ask Huyen Le, supervisor of a family resource center in San Jose, California. After a full day’s work managing children’s reading programs and parenting workshops, she returns home to her own two-year-old daughter, Katelynn.

“We do a lot in our center. Sometimes, I forget to do it with my kid at home,” Le says. Seeking inspiration, she turns to her phone where, for the last 10 months, she’s been receiving text messages with simple educational games, tips on how to engage with Katelynn and reminders of simple learning activities they can do together.

The texts come from a team of researchers at Stanford University’s Center for Education Policy Analysis (CEPA) Labs. Each message goes out to parents or other caregivers and reminds them of the skills young children will eventually need for school and how to help kids build them.

The approach is inspired in part by “nudge” techniques, that is, behavioral interventions that push a person during decision-making towards a certain goal. For example, many employers nudge you to save for retirement by contributing a portion of your paycheck to a 401k. You could always opt out, but making saving a default decision spares you the task of regularly choosing how much to put away – it lightens your cognitive load, so to speak.

Nudges could have a powerful effect on education. Parental engagement can be a major factor in a student’s success or failure – and parents tend to have a lot on their minds. So several researchers are exploring how a simple text-based nudge to parents could improve their kids’ academic performance by making engagement easier and even habitual for parents.

For instance, Peter Bergman, at Teachers College, Columbia University, found that in one West Virginia school district, simply keeping parents in the loop, through texting, as to their child’s absences and grades could cut course failures for middle and high school students by nearly 40 percent. (The Hechinger Report is an independently funded unit of Teachers College.) Reminders made monitoring a child easier, thus increasing the odds mom or dad would stay involved in a kid’s educational life. Texting, Bergman explains, while not the only communication option, is a wide-reaching, effective and inexpensive medium.

The program Le participates in aims at parents of much younger children. Three times a week, researchers from CEPA Labs send parents and other caregivers suggestions on how to support children’s literacy, numeracy and social and emotional skills. Bath time, walks in the park and familiar household interactions become opportunities for children to learn and practice concepts they will later use in school.

For example, a Monday message might flag an important domain (“children need to know the letters to learn how to read & write”); a Wednesday text might provide a related learning activity (such as asking a child to find the first letter in his or her name on signs or labels); and a Friday message might offer encouragement (“Keep pointing out the letters. You’re preparing your child 4 K [Kindergarten]!”).

Results thus far are encouraging. In an analysis of 935 families with children in preschool in the San Francisco Unified School District, Loeb and her colleagues found that after eight months, teachers noted that text-receiving parents asked more questions about their child’s progress than other adults, and the kids themselves improved their literacy skills.

“In the long run it tells us we can positively affect parenting, particularly for kids who have traditionally not been as well served,” says Stanford professor of education Susannah Loeb. In fact, language skills advanced most among kids who started the program with the lowest scores in a literacy assessment.

These approaches work, explains University of Chicago professor Ariel Kalil, because they gradually reshape a parent’s routine and habits. Kalil, who co-directs the Behavioral Insights and Parenting Lab, has found that low-income parents know what they should do with their kids – such as reading more books or practicing counting – but fail to follow through as other parts of their life get in the way. “The issue is basically habit formation, you have a gap between wanting to do something and actually doing it,” she says.

Along with the lab’s other co-director, University of Chicago professor Susan Mayer, Kalil is also exploring text-based nudges for low-income families. For instance, in a six-week study involving 169 parents, Kalil and Mayer gave families tablets preloaded with more than 500 children’s stories.

Half of participating parents were asked to set weekly goals for how much time they would spend reading to kids, and then received texts with reminders of those targets, progress reports on meeting the aims and even notification when they spent the most time reading of any parent in the study in a given week. The other families received a tablet but no additional reading prompts. At the end of the intervention, the adults who had received the extra nudges spent more than twice as much time reading each week with their kids – a difference of 89 minutes on average.

If all of this reminds you of FitBit, but for family time, you’re right. In fact, both Loeb and Kalil make that comparison. Regular reminders of your progress, tips to achieve goals and, yes, gentle social pressure are all nudges that fitness trackers use to not just get you moving but also make walking habitual. If your device breaks, perhaps you won’t make 10,000 steps a day, but you’ll have created a routine that makes it likely you’ll hit, say, 7,000.

In that respect, the texting-based education interventions can also stick. Kalil and Mayer found that three months after their experiment had wrapped up and the tablets had been taken away, the parents who had received nudges were still spending twice as much time reading to their kids as the other families who participated. Building on those successes, Kalil and Mayer are exploring interventions aimed at parents’ math skills, math anxiety and improving preschool attendance.

Perhaps because these interventions help parents achieve their goals in a collaborative, not paternalistic, spirit, families across these programs seem to appreciate the reminders. Le, who has helped enroll other caregivers at center where she works into the Stanford program, says, “They really enjoy receiving the texts.”

She herself likes having a record of activities to try with Katelynn.

“It’s good to have it in the phone,” she says, where she can save a message for later if she can’t act on a tip right away. Given the many demands of parenthood, it can be nice to know that even when things become overwhelming someone will gently nudge you back on track.

This story was produced by The Hechinger Report, the nonprofit, independent news website focused on inequality and innovation in education. Sign up for our newsletter.

How Tips via Text Message May Help Parents and Preschoolers Learn syndicated from https://buyessayscheapservice.wordpress.com/

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10 Tips For Making Your Blog Posts Easier To Read

How do you encourage your blog visitors to not only start reading your posts but also stick around to the end? We offer you ten tips to enhance the readability of your blog posts. And you might just have to forget a few of the things you learned at school!
10 Tips For Making Your Blog Posts Easier To Read syndicated from https://buyessayscheapservice.wordpress.com/

How Tips via Text Message May Help Parents and Preschoolers Learn

Tending toddlers can require endless reserves of energy. Just ask Huyen Le, supervisor of a family resource center in San Jose, California. After a full day’s work managing children’s reading programs and parenting workshops, she returns home to her own two-year-old daughter, Katelynn.

“We do a lot in our center. Sometimes, I forget to do it with my kid at home,” Le says. Seeking inspiration, she turns to her phone where, for the last 10 months, she’s been receiving text messages with simple educational games, tips on how to engage with Katelynn and reminders of simple learning activities they can do together.

The texts come from a team of researchers at Stanford University’s Center for Education Policy Analysis (CEPA) Labs. Each message goes out to parents or other caregivers and reminds them of the skills young children will eventually need for school and how to help kids build them.

The approach is inspired in part by “nudge” techniques, that is, behavioral interventions that push a person during decision-making towards a certain goal. For example, many employers nudge you to save for retirement by contributing a portion of your paycheck to a 401k. You could always opt out, but making saving a default decision spares you the task of regularly choosing how much to put away – it lightens your cognitive load, so to speak.

Nudges could have a powerful effect on education. Parental engagement can be a major factor in a student’s success or failure – and parents tend to have a lot on their minds. So several researchers are exploring how a simple text-based nudge to parents could improve their kids’ academic performance by making engagement easier and even habitual for parents.

For instance, Peter Bergman, at Teachers College, Columbia University, found that in one West Virginia school district, simply keeping parents in the loop, through texting, as to their child’s absences and grades could cut course failures for middle and high school students by nearly 40 percent. (The Hechinger Report is an independently funded unit of Teachers College.) Reminders made monitoring a child easier, thus increasing the odds mom or dad would stay involved in a kid’s educational life. Texting, Bergman explains, while not the only communication option, is a wide-reaching, effective and inexpensive medium.

The program Le participates in aims at parents of much younger children. Three times a week, researchers from CEPA Labs send parents and other caregivers suggestions on how to support children’s literacy, numeracy and social and emotional skills. Bath time, walks in the park and familiar household interactions become opportunities for children to learn and practice concepts they will later use in school.

For example, a Monday message might flag an important domain (“children need to know the letters to learn how to read & write”); a Wednesday text might provide a related learning activity (such as asking a child to find the first letter in his or her name on signs or labels); and a Friday message might offer encouragement (“Keep pointing out the letters. You’re preparing your child 4 K [Kindergarten]!”).

Results thus far are encouraging. In an analysis of 935 families with children in preschool in the San Francisco Unified School District, Loeb and her colleagues found that after eight months, teachers noted that text-receiving parents asked more questions about their child’s progress than other adults, and the kids themselves improved their literacy skills.

“In the long run it tells us we can positively affect parenting, particularly for kids who have traditionally not been as well served,” says Stanford professor of education Susannah Loeb. In fact, language skills advanced most among kids who started the program with the lowest scores in a literacy assessment.

These approaches work, explains University of Chicago professor Ariel Kalil, because they gradually reshape a parent’s routine and habits. Kalil, who co-directs the Behavioral Insights and Parenting Lab, has found that low-income parents know what they should do with their kids – such as reading more books or practicing counting – but fail to follow through as other parts of their life get in the way. “The issue is basically habit formation, you have a gap between wanting to do something and actually doing it,” she says.

Along with the lab’s other co-director, University of Chicago professor Susan Mayer, Kalil is also exploring text-based nudges for low-income families. For instance, in a six-week study involving 169 parents, Kalil and Mayer gave families tablets preloaded with more than 500 children’s stories.

Half of participating parents were asked to set weekly goals for how much time they would spend reading to kids, and then received texts with reminders of those targets, progress reports on meeting the aims and even notification when they spent the most time reading of any parent in the study in a given week. The other families received a tablet but no additional reading prompts. At the end of the intervention, the adults who had received the extra nudges spent more than twice as much time reading each week with their kids – a difference of 89 minutes on average.

If all of this reminds you of FitBit, but for family time, you’re right. In fact, both Loeb and Kalil make that comparison. Regular reminders of your progress, tips to achieve goals and, yes, gentle social pressure are all nudges that fitness trackers use to not just get you moving but also make walking habitual. If your device breaks, perhaps you won’t make 10,000 steps a day, but you’ll have created a routine that makes it likely you’ll hit, say, 7,000.

In that respect, the texting-based education interventions can also stick. Kalil and Mayer found that three months after their experiment had wrapped up and the tablets had been taken away, the parents who had received nudges were still spending twice as much time reading to their kids as the other families who participated. Building on those successes, Kalil and Mayer are exploring interventions aimed at parents’ math skills, math anxiety and improving preschool attendance.

Perhaps because these interventions help parents achieve their goals in a collaborative, not paternalistic, spirit, families across these programs seem to appreciate the reminders. Le, who has helped enroll other caregivers at center where she works into the Stanford program, says, “They really enjoy receiving the texts.”

She herself likes having a record of activities to try with Katelynn.

“It’s good to have it in the phone,” she says, where she can save a message for later if she can’t act on a tip right away. Given the many demands of parenthood, it can be nice to know that even when things become overwhelming someone will gently nudge you back on track.

This story was produced by The Hechinger Report, the nonprofit, independent news website focused on inequality and innovation in education. Sign up for our newsletter.

How Tips via Text Message May Help Parents and Preschoolers Learn syndicated from https://buyessayscheapservice.wordpress.com/

10 Tips For Making Your Blog Posts Easier To Read

How do you encourage your blog visitors to not only start reading your posts but also stick around to the end? We offer you ten tips to enhance the readability of your blog posts. And you might just have to forget a few of the things you learned at school!
10 Tips For Making Your Blog Posts Easier To Read syndicated from https://buyessayscheapservice.wordpress.com/

How Trauma, Abuse and Neglect in Childhood Connects to Serious Diseases in Adults

Excerpted from THE DEEPEST WELL: Healing the Long-Term Effects of Childhood Adversity by Nadine Burke Harris. Copyright © 2018 by Nadine Burke Harris. Reprinted by permission of Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.

[Dr. Vincent] Felitti suspected that he might have glimpsed a hidden relationship between histories of abuse and obesity. To get a clearer picture of that potential relationship, when he conducted his normal checkups and patient interviews for the obesity program, he now began asking people if they had a history of childhood sexual abuse. To his shock, it seemed as if every other patient acknowledged such a history. At first he thought there was no way this could be true. Wouldn’t he have learned about this correlation in medical school? However, after 186 patients, he was becoming convinced. But in order to make sure there wasn’t something idiosyncratic about his group of patients or about the way he asked the questions, he enlisted five colleagues to screen their next hundred weight patients for a history of abuse. When they turned up the same results, Felitti knew they had uncovered something big.

Dr. Felitti’s initial insight about the link between childhood adversity and health outcomes led to the landmark ACE Study. This was a prime example of doctors thinking like detectives, following a hunch and

then putting it through its scientific paces. Beginning with just two patients, this research would eventually become both the foundation and the inspiration for ongoing work giving medical professionals critical insight into the lives of so many others.

After the initial detective work within his own department, Felitti started trying to spread the word. In 1990 he presented his findings at a national obesity meeting in Atlanta and was roundly criticized by his peers. One physician in the audience insisted that patients’ stories of abuse were fabrications meant to provide cover for their failed lives. Felitti reported that the man got a round of applause.

There was at least one person at the conference who didn’t think Dr. Felitti had been hoodwinked by his patients. An epidemiologist from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), David Williamson was seated next to Felitti at a dinner for the speakers later that night. The senior scientist told Felitti that if what he was claiming — that there was a connection between childhood abuse and obesity — was true, it could be enormously important. But he pointed out that no one was going to believe evidence based on a mere 286 cases. What Felitti needed was a large-scale, epidemiologically sound study with thousands of people who came from a wide cross-section of the population, not just a subgroup in an obesity program.

In the weeks following their meeting, Williamson introduced Felitti to a physician epidemiologist at the CDC, Robert Anda. Anda had spent years at the CDC researching the link between behavioral health and cardiovascular disease. For the next two years Anda and Felitti would review the existing literature on the connection between abuse and obesity and figure out the best way to create a meaningful study. Their aim was to identify two things: (1) the relationship between exposure to abuse and/or household dysfunction in childhood and adult health-risk behavior (alcoholism, smoking, severe obesity), and (2) the relationship between exposure to abuse and/or household dysfunction in childhood and disease. To do that, they needed comprehensive medical evaluations and health data from a large number of adults.

Fortunately, part of the data they needed was already being collected every day at Kaiser Permanente in San Diego, where over 45,000 adults a year were getting comprehensive medical evaluations in the health appraisal center. The medical evaluations amassed by Kaiser would be a treasure trove of important data for Felitti and Anda because they contained demographic information, previous diagnoses, family history, and current conditions or diseases each patient was dealing with. After nine months of battling and finally gaining approval from the oversight committees for their ACE Study protocol, Felitti and Anda were ready to go. Between 1995 and 1997, they asked 26,000 Kaiser members if they would help improve understanding of how childhood experiences affected health, and 17,421 of those Kaiser health-plan members agreed to participate. A week after the first two visits for this process, Felitti and Anda sent each patient a questionnaire asking about childhood abuse and exposure to household dysfunction as well as about current health-risk factors, like smoking, drug abuse, and exposure to sexually transmitted diseases.

The questionnaire collected crucial information about what Felitti and Anda termed “adverse childhood experiences,” or ACEs. Based on the prevalence of adversities they had seen in the obesity program, Felitti and Anda sorted their definitions of abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction into ten specific categories of ACEs. Their goal was to determine each patient’s level of exposure by asking if he or she had experienced any of the ten categories before the age of eighteen.

Emotional abuse (recurrent)
Physical abuse (recurrent)
Sexual abuse (contact)
Physical neglect
Emotional neglect
Substance abuse in the household (e.g., living with an alcoholic or a person with a substance-abuse problem)
Mental illness in the household (e.g., living with someone who suffered from depression or mental illness or who had attempted suicide)
Mother treated violently
Divorce or parental separation
Criminal behavior in household (e.g., a household member going to prison)

Each category of abuse, neglect, or dysfunction experienced counted as one point. Because there were ten categories, the highest possible ACE score was ten.

Using the data from the medical evaluations and the questionnaires, Felitti and Anda correlated the ACE scores with health-risk behaviors and health outcomes.

First, they discovered that ACEs were astonishingly common — 67 percent of the population had at least one category of ACE and 12.6 percent had four or more categories of ACEs.

Second, they found a dose-response relationship between ACEs and poor health outcomes, meaning that the higher a person’s ACE score, the greater the risk to his or her health. For instance, a person with four or more ACEs was twice as likely to develop heart disease and cancer and three and a half times as likely to develop chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as a person with zero ACEs.

Given what I’d seen in my patients and in the community, I knew in my bones that this study was dead-on.

Dr. Nadine Burke Harris (Michael Winokur)

It was powerful evidence of the connection that I had seen clinically but had never seen substantiated in the literature. After reading the ACE Study, I was able to answer the question of whether there was a medical connection between the stress of childhood abuse and neglect and the bodily changes and damage that could last a lifetime. It seemed clear now that there was a dangerous exposure in the well at Bayview Hunters Point. It wasn’t lead. It wasn’t toxic waste. It wasn’t even poverty, per se. It was childhood adversity. And it was making people sick.

One of the most revealing parts of the ACE Study was not what it investigated but who it investigated.

Many people might look at Bayview Hunters Point and see the rates of poverty and violence and the lack of health care and say, “Of course those people are sicker; that makes sense.” After all, that’s what I learned in public-health school. Poverty and lack of adequate health care are what really drives poor health outcomes, right?

This is where the ACE Study comes in and shakes things up, showing us that the dominant view is missing something big. Because where was the ACE Study conducted?

Bayview? Harlem? South-Central Los Angeles?

Nope.

Solidly middle-class San Diego.

The original ACE Study was done in a population that was 70 percent Caucasian and 70 percent college-educated.

The study’s participants, as patients of Kaiser, also had great health care. Over and over again, further studies about ACEs have validated the original findings. The body of research sparked by the ACE Study makes it clear that adverse childhood experiences in and of themselves are a risk factor for many of the most common and serious diseases in the United States (and worldwide), regardless of income or race or access to care.

The ACE Study is powerful for a lot of reasons, but a big one is that its focus goes beyond behavioral or mental-health outcomes. The research wasn’t conducted by a psychologist; it was conducted by two internal medicine doctors. Most people intuitively understand that there’s a connection between trauma in childhood and risky behavior, like drinking too much, eating poorly, and smoking, in adulthood (more on that later).

But what most people don’t recognize is that there is a connection between early life adversity and well-known killers like heart disease and cancer. Every day in the clinic I saw the way my patients’ exposure to ACEs was taking a toll on their bodies. They may have been too young for heart disease, but I could certainly see the early signs in their high rates of obesity and asthma.

Dr. Nadine Burke Harris is the founder of CEO of the Center for Youth Wellness in San Francisco’s Bayview Hunters Point. She is the subject of a New Yorker profile and the recipient of a Heinz Award, among many other honors. Her TED talk “How Childhood Trauma Affects Health Across the Lifetime” has been viewed over three million times. She lives in San Francisco with her husband and four sons. THE DEEPEST WELL is her first book.

https://embed.ted.com/talks/nadine_burke_harris_how_childhood_trauma_affects_health_across_a_lifetime

How Trauma, Abuse and Neglect in Childhood Connects to Serious Diseases in Adults syndicated from https://buyessayscheapservice.wordpress.com/

How Trauma, Abuse and Neglect in Childhood Connects to Serious Diseases in Adults

Excerpted from THE DEEPEST WELL: Healing the Long-Term Effects of Childhood Adversity by Nadine Burke Harris. Copyright © 2018 by Nadine Burke Harris. Reprinted by permission of Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.

[Dr. Vincent] Felitti suspected that he might have glimpsed a hidden relationship between histories of abuse and obesity. To get a clearer picture of that potential relationship, when he conducted his normal checkups and patient interviews for the obesity program, he now began asking people if they had a history of childhood sexual abuse. To his shock, it seemed as if every other patient acknowledged such a history. At first he thought there was no way this could be true. Wouldn’t he have learned about this correlation in medical school? However, after 186 patients, he was becoming convinced. But in order to make sure there wasn’t something idiosyncratic about his group of patients or about the way he asked the questions, he enlisted five colleagues to screen their next hundred weight patients for a history of abuse. When they turned up the same results, Felitti knew they had uncovered something big.

Dr. Felitti’s initial insight about the link between childhood adversity and health outcomes led to the landmark ACE Study. This was a prime example of doctors thinking like detectives, following a hunch and

then putting it through its scientific paces. Beginning with just two patients, this research would eventually become both the foundation and the inspiration for ongoing work giving medical professionals critical insight into the lives of so many others.

After the initial detective work within his own department, Felitti started trying to spread the word. In 1990 he presented his findings at a national obesity meeting in Atlanta and was roundly criticized by his peers. One physician in the audience insisted that patients’ stories of abuse were fabrications meant to provide cover for their failed lives. Felitti reported that the man got a round of applause.

There was at least one person at the conference who didn’t think Dr. Felitti had been hoodwinked by his patients. An epidemiologist from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), David Williamson was seated next to Felitti at a dinner for the speakers later that night. The senior scientist told Felitti that if what he was claiming — that there was a connection between childhood abuse and obesity — was true, it could be enormously important. But he pointed out that no one was going to believe evidence based on a mere 286 cases. What Felitti needed was a large-scale, epidemiologically sound study with thousands of people who came from a wide cross-section of the population, not just a subgroup in an obesity program.

In the weeks following their meeting, Williamson introduced Felitti to a physician epidemiologist at the CDC, Robert Anda. Anda had spent years at the CDC researching the link between behavioral health and cardiovascular disease. For the next two years Anda and Felitti would review the existing literature on the connection between abuse and obesity and figure out the best way to create a meaningful study. Their aim was to identify two things: (1) the relationship between exposure to abuse and/or household dysfunction in childhood and adult health-risk behavior (alcoholism, smoking, severe obesity), and (2) the relationship between exposure to abuse and/or household dysfunction in childhood and disease. To do that, they needed comprehensive medical evaluations and health data from a large number of adults.

Fortunately, part of the data they needed was already being collected every day at Kaiser Permanente in San Diego, where over 45,000 adults a year were getting comprehensive medical evaluations in the health appraisal center. The medical evaluations amassed by Kaiser would be a treasure trove of important data for Felitti and Anda because they contained demographic information, previous diagnoses, family history, and current conditions or diseases each patient was dealing with. After nine months of battling and finally gaining approval from the oversight committees for their ACE Study protocol, Felitti and Anda were ready to go. Between 1995 and 1997, they asked 26,000 Kaiser members if they would help improve understanding of how childhood experiences affected health, and 17,421 of those Kaiser health-plan members agreed to participate. A week after the first two visits for this process, Felitti and Anda sent each patient a questionnaire asking about childhood abuse and exposure to household dysfunction as well as about current health-risk factors, like smoking, drug abuse, and exposure to sexually transmitted diseases.

The questionnaire collected crucial information about what Felitti and Anda termed “adverse childhood experiences,” or ACEs. Based on the prevalence of adversities they had seen in the obesity program, Felitti and Anda sorted their definitions of abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction into ten specific categories of ACEs. Their goal was to determine each patient’s level of exposure by asking if he or she had experienced any of the ten categories before the age of eighteen.

Emotional abuse (recurrent)
Physical abuse (recurrent)
Sexual abuse (contact)
Physical neglect
Emotional neglect
Substance abuse in the household (e.g., living with an alcoholic or a person with a substance-abuse problem)
Mental illness in the household (e.g., living with someone who suffered from depression or mental illness or who had attempted suicide)
Mother treated violently
Divorce or parental separation
Criminal behavior in household (e.g., a household member going to prison)

Each category of abuse, neglect, or dysfunction experienced counted as one point. Because there were ten categories, the highest possible ACE score was ten.

Using the data from the medical evaluations and the questionnaires, Felitti and Anda correlated the ACE scores with health-risk behaviors and health outcomes.

First, they discovered that ACEs were astonishingly common — 67 percent of the population had at least one category of ACE and 12.6 percent had four or more categories of ACEs.

Second, they found a dose-response relationship between ACEs and poor health outcomes, meaning that the higher a person’s ACE score, the greater the risk to his or her health. For instance, a person with four or more ACEs was twice as likely to develop heart disease and cancer and three and a half times as likely to develop chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as a person with zero ACEs.

Given what I’d seen in my patients and in the community, I knew in my bones that this study was dead-on.

Dr. Nadine Burke Harris (Michael Winokur)

It was powerful evidence of the connection that I had seen clinically but had never seen substantiated in the literature. After reading the ACE Study, I was able to answer the question of whether there was a medical connection between the stress of childhood abuse and neglect and the bodily changes and damage that could last a lifetime. It seemed clear now that there was a dangerous exposure in the well at Bayview Hunters Point. It wasn’t lead. It wasn’t toxic waste. It wasn’t even poverty, per se. It was childhood adversity. And it was making people sick.

One of the most revealing parts of the ACE Study was not what it investigated but who it investigated.

Many people might look at Bayview Hunters Point and see the rates of poverty and violence and the lack of health care and say, “Of course those people are sicker; that makes sense.” After all, that’s what I learned in public-health school. Poverty and lack of adequate health care are what really drives poor health outcomes, right?

This is where the ACE Study comes in and shakes things up, showing us that the dominant view is missing something big. Because where was the ACE Study conducted?

Bayview? Harlem? South-Central Los Angeles?

Nope.

Solidly middle-class San Diego.

The original ACE Study was done in a population that was 70 percent Caucasian and 70 percent college-educated.

The study’s participants, as patients of Kaiser, also had great health care. Over and over again, further studies about ACEs have validated the original findings. The body of research sparked by the ACE Study makes it clear that adverse childhood experiences in and of themselves are a risk factor for many of the most common and serious diseases in the United States (and worldwide), regardless of income or race or access to care.

The ACE Study is powerful for a lot of reasons, but a big one is that its focus goes beyond behavioral or mental-health outcomes. The research wasn’t conducted by a psychologist; it was conducted by two internal medicine doctors. Most people intuitively understand that there’s a connection between trauma in childhood and risky behavior, like drinking too much, eating poorly, and smoking, in adulthood (more on that later).

But what most people don’t recognize is that there is a connection between early life adversity and well-known killers like heart disease and cancer. Every day in the clinic I saw the way my patients’ exposure to ACEs was taking a toll on their bodies. They may have been too young for heart disease, but I could certainly see the early signs in their high rates of obesity and asthma.

Dr. Nadine Burke Harris is the founder of CEO of the Center for Youth Wellness in San Francisco’s Bayview Hunters Point. She is the subject of a New Yorker profile and the recipient of a Heinz Award, among many other honors. Her TED talk “How Childhood Trauma Affects Health Across the Lifetime” has been viewed over three million times. She lives in San Francisco with her husband and four sons. THE DEEPEST WELL is her first book.

https://embed.ted.com/talks/nadine_burke_harris_how_childhood_trauma_affects_health_across_a_lifetime

How Trauma, Abuse and Neglect in Childhood Connects to Serious Diseases in Adults syndicated from https://buyessayscheapservice.wordpress.com/

Polar Bear “Street” View Lesson Plans

Polar Bears International offers a set of extensive lesson plans designed to help students learn about polar bears and their habitat. One of those lesson plans is called Street View and Polar Bears. In Street View and Polar Bears students use Google Maps to explore the geography, geology, and ecosystem of the tundra around Churchill, Manitoba, Canada. At the end of the lesson students should be able to answer questions like “what are the characteristics of the subarctic tundra?” and “what would be some of the considerations for the construction of buildings, schools, houses, etc. in the subarctic?”

Bear Tracker is another feature of the Polar Bears International website. The Bear Tracker plots the travels of collared polar bears in Hudson Bay and the Beaufort Sea north of Alaska. You can view the travel paths of one or all of the bears on each map. The map also offers play the travel paths recorded over time.

Polar Bear “Street” View Lesson Plans syndicated from https://buyessayscheapservice.wordpress.com/